https://doi.org/10.25678/00040H

Data for: Chlorothalonil transformation products in drinking water resources: widespread and challenging to abate

Chlorothalonil, a fungicide applied for decades worldwide, has recently been banned in the European Union (EU) and Switzerland due to its carcinogenicity and the presence of potentially toxic transformation products (TPs) in groundwater. The spread and concentration range of chlorothalonil TPs in different drinking water resources was examined (73 groundwater and four surface water samples mainly from Switzerland). The chlorothalonil sulfonic acid TPs (R471811, R419492, R417888) occurred more frequently and at higher concentrations (detected in 65-100% of the samples, ≤2200 ngL-1) than the phenolic TPs (SYN507900, SYN548580, R611968; detected in 10-30% of the samples, ≤130 ngL-1). The TP R471811 was found in all samples and even in 52% of the samples above 100 ngL-1, the drinking water standard in Switzerland and other European countries. Therefore, the abatement of chlorothalonil TPs was investigated in laboratory and pilot-scale experiments and along the treatment train of various water works, comprising aquifer recharge, UV disinfection, ozonation, advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), activated carbon treatment, and reverse osmosis. The phenolic TPs can be abated during ozonation (second order rate constant kO3 ∼10^4 M-1s-1) and by reaction with hydroxyl radicals (OH) in AOPs (kOH ∼10^9 M-1s-1). In contrast, the sulfonic acid TPs, which occurred in higher concentrations in drinking water resources, react only very slowly with ozone (kO3 <0.04 M-1s-1) and OH (kOH <5.0 × 10^7 M-1s-1) and therefore persist in ozonation and OH-based AOPs. Activated carbon retained the very polar TP R471811 only up to a specific throughput of 25 m3kg-1 (20% breakthrough), similarly to the X-ray contrast agent diatrizoic acid. Reverse osmosis was capable of removing all chlorothalonil TPs by ≥98%.

Data and Resources

Citation

This Data Package

Kiefer, K., Bader, T., Minas, N., Salhi, E., Janssen, E., Von Gunten, U., & Hollender, J. (2020). Data for: Chlorothalonil transformation products in drinking water resources: widespread and challenging to abate (Version 1.0) [Data set]. Eawag: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology. https://doi.org/10.25678/00040H

The associated article

Kiefer, K., Bader, T., Minas, N., Salhi, E., Janssen, E. M.-L., von Gunten, U., & Hollender, J. (2020). Chlorothalonil transformation products in drinking water resources: Widespread and challenging to abate. Water Research, 183, 116066. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2020.116066

Metadata

Open Data Open Data
Author(s)
  • Kiefer, Karin
  • Bader, Tobias
  • Minas, Nora
  • Salhi, Elisabeth
  • Janssen, Elisabeth
  • Von Gunten, Urs
  • Hollender, Juliane
Keywords Pesticide,Metabolite,Water Treatment,Groundwater,Ozonation,Activated Carbon
Variables
  • concentration
  • degradation_rate
  • oxidation_kinetcis
Substances (scientific names)
  • Acesulfame (YGCFIWIQZPHFLU-UHFFFAOYSA-N)
  • Chlorothalonil TP R417888 (JNMMKKYUIIQPDG-UHFFFAOYSA-N)
  • Chlorothalonil TP R418503 (KRIHZDRHCUOOQO-UHFFFAOYSA-N)
  • Chlorothalonil TP R419492 (JOXRNCACMLEFME-UHFFFAOYSA-N)
  • Chlorothalonil TP R471811 (NLCNUAPJCIAONV-UHFFFAOYSA-N)
  • Chlorothalonil TP R611965 (XKFUETYLBPYNKF-UHFFFAOYSA-N)
  • Chlorothalonil TP R611968 (IODGSFOOWTXKAE-UHFFFAOYSA-N)
  • Chlorothalonil TP SYN507900 (WUYYRWIYXBUPBS-UHFFFAOYSA-N)
  • Chlorothalonil TP SYN548580 (XERUIVSANADXCP-UHFFFAOYSA-N)
  • Chlorothalonil TP SYN548581 (GTKOZWUQRHEXJR-UHFFFAOYSA-N)
Substances (generic terms)
  • fungicide metabolites
Systems
  • groundwater
  • laboratory
Timerange
  • 2018 TO 2019
Geographic Name(s)
  • Switzerland
Review Level none
Curator Kiefer, Karin
Contact karin.kiefer@eawag.ch
DOI 10.25678/00040H